Pisa lies in the place where once there was the mouth of the river Arno; today the sea is more far away, but the city has always maintained a particular fascination.
The origins of the name Pisa are completely uncertain. The most probable hypothesis says that it is linked to the homonymous Greek city, whose inhabitants perhaps founded the Italian Pisa after the war of Troy. Other historians think that the name comes from the word that the Etruscans used for “mouth”. But the etymology of Pisa can derive also from a ligurian dialect, in order to indicate a swampy place.
The area of Pisa has been inhabited since the Paleolithic, but the city caught up the maximum splendor between the X and the XIII century, when some cities, calls Repubbliche Marinare (maritime republics), enjoyed economic prosperity thanks to their business activity and political autonomy. Generally, the definition is referred in particular to four Italian cities: Pisa is one of these cities, together with Amalfi, Genoa and Venice.
Pisa's most famous monuments are all in the Piazza dei Miracoli, declared patrimony of the humanity; as an example, the Cathedral built between 1063 and 1118. But in the this square there is also the characteristic hanging Tower, bell tower of XII century, that acquired the inclination that has rendered it famous all over the world ten years after the beginning of its construction.